Tulsa: Oil Capital of the World and Thriving Metropolis

Glenn Pool, where Tulsa became known as the "Oil Capital of the World." Photo courtesy of the Tulsa Historical Society. Philbrooke, a lavish Italianate Villa that has been transformed into a museum in Midtown Tulsa.Early oil derricks in Kiefer, Okla. Photo courtesy of the Tulsa Historical Society. Tulsa's infamous Golden Driller, symbolizing the industry that put Tulsa on the map.An early oil field outside of Tulsa in Sapulpa, Okla. Photo courtesy of the Tulsa Historical Society.The Skelly Mansion, placed on the National Registry of Historical Places in 1978.Tulsa's Harwelden Mansion, the city's only example of collegiate gothic English Tudor architecture.Visitors can see Thomas Gilcrease's extensive art collection proudly displayed at the Gilcrease MuseumTulsa's iconic Art-Deco inspired skyscrapper, Philtower.The BOK Tower, known as Tulsa's tallest standing building.You can see the National Bank of Tulsa and it's Beaux Arts-style in the Oil Capital Historic District.The Mid-Continent Tower was built in 1918 by Joshua Cosden, otherwise known as the "Prince of Petroleum."The Mid-Continent Oil Refinery and Tulsa skyline. Photo courtesy of the Tulsa Historical SocietyThe Helmerich Research Center at Oklahoma State University–Tulsa, provides students with state-of-the-art research facilities and equipment.ONEOK Field, home to the Drillers Minor League Baseball team.

In 1901, Tulsa County’s first successful well struck oil at Red Fork, just across the Arkansas River from the city. Though it produced less than 10 barrels per day, this event made national headlines that began an unstoppable rush of speculators, the likes of which had not been seen since the California Gold Rush of 1848.

But it was the discovery well drilled in the Glenn Pool on November of 1905, 12 miles southwest of town, that secured Tulsa’s right to call itself Oil Capital of the World. The Glenn Pool field was the first of several strikes in Oklahoma that would shape the future of the city and the state for the next several decades.

By the time Oklahoma became America’s 46th state in 1907, more than 100 oil companies were operating in the Glenn Pool oilfield alone.



Tulsa quickly became the undisputed economic and cultural beneficiary of the state’s newest industry. Many international petroleum associations and geological societies chose Tulsa as their headquarters. In 1923, Tulsa hosted the first International Petroleum Exposition, which eventually became the world’s largest trade show. The 75-foot Golden Driller still proudly stands as the symbol of the industry that put Tulsa and Oklahoma on the map.



Prominent oilmen such as J. Paul Getty, William G. Skelly, James A. Chapman, Waite Phillips, Harry Sinclair, William K. Warren and many others got their start at Glenn Pool. For years, these men and their fortunes were inextricably tied to Tulsa. Drive through midtown and you will see numerous grand homes built by the city’s oil tycoons in the early twentieth century.

The Skelly Mansion was the home of oilman William G. Skelly. It was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. Just a mile west is Harwelden, built by oilman Earl Palmer Harwell and his wife Mary in the mid-1920s. The home is notable as the city’s only example of collegiate gothic English Tudor architecture.

One of the most successful oilmen of the period, Waite Phillips, and his wife Genevieve built Philbrook, a lavish, Italianate Villa in Midtown Tulsa. In 1938, they donated the structure and grounds to the city as a museum.

Another prominent Tulsa oilman, Thomas Gilcrease, amassed one of the nation’s most extensive collections of art of the American West. Visitors can see it proudly displayed at the Gilcrease Museum.



The oil boom generated incalculable prosperity for Tulsa that remains evident to this day. Some of the nation’s most beautiful examples of Art Deco architecture grace the skyline, along with the city’s most prominent modern structures.

The BOK Tower, formerly One Williams Center, remains Tulsa’s tallest building. The Williams company, much like Tulsa itself, has long since diversified its operations in order to adapt to changing times. To accommodate an increasingly digitally-based future, fiber optic cables were ran through decommissioned pipelines, which greatly assisted the modern telecommunications industry.



The names of Tulsa’s original oilmen and their descendants can be found on medical complexes, libraries, university buildings and public parks throughout the city and the surrounding area. Their fortunes have become foundations that will continue to benefit Tulsans for many generations to come.



Oil and natural gas continues to play a significant role in Tulsa’s economy. Williams, ONEOK, Helmerich & Payne, and many other petroleum companies remain headquartered in Tulsa, close to their roots. The lasting impact of Tulsa’s oilmen on the thriving city where it all began more than a century ago cannot be overstated.

EnergyHQ is powered by the Oklahoma Energy Resources Board – OERB – which is voluntarily funded by the state's oil and natural gas producers and royalty owners. The OERB provides free environmental restoration of abandoned well sites and works to educate the state's citizens about the oil and natural gas industry. For more on the OERB's mission and how it is funded, visit OERB.com.